Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia which is situated on the Moskva River in western Russia, It is the nation’s cosmopolitan capital with a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific center of Russia. Moscow is among the world’s largest cities and it has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer. It is also one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world. It is because the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basil’s Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are also one of several World Heritage Sites in the city.
The Garden Ring district has bars, nightclubs and museums like the Pushkin State Museum, with many Impressionist works, and the State Tretyakov Gallery, specializing in Russian art. Nearby are the Bolshoi Theatre, known for ballet and opera, and Tretyakovsky Proyezd, a street lined with luxury shops. To the north, the Ostankino TV Tower offers panoramic views. Wintertime brings ice-skating to Gorky Park, plus the Russian Winter Festival, featuring music and dance. South of the city center is the open-air architecture museum Kolomenskoye, showcasing a wide range of building types.
1. The Moscow Kremlin
The Moscow Kremlin or simply the Kremlin is the most famous historical and political landmark, the Kremlin is a walled-in complex of cathedrals, palaces, and government offices, with several buildings open to the public, including the Armoury, Patriarch’s Palace and the State Kremlin Palace., It is the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil’s Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of the kremlins (Russian citadels) and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. In addition, within this complex is the Grand Kremlin Palace that was formerly the tsar’s Moscow residence. The complex now serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation and as a museum with 2,746,405 visitors in 2017.
2. Red Square
Red Square is a city square in Moscow, Russia. It separates the Kremlin, the former royal citadel and now the official residence of the President of Russia, from a historic merchant quarter known as Kitai-gorod. The buildings surrounding the Square are all significant: Nearby to the South is the elaborate brightly domed Saint Basil’s Cathedral and the palaces and cathedrals of the Kremlin, Lenin’s Mausoleum. On the Eastern side of the square is the GUM department store, and next to it the restored Kazan Cathedral. Red Square is often considered to be the central square of Moscow since the city’s major streets, which connect to Russia’s major highways, originate in the square.
3. St. Basil’s Cathedral
The Cathedral of Vasily the Blessed commonly known as Saint Basil’s Cathedral, is a church in Red Square in Moscow, Russia and is one of the most popular symbols of the country. The building, now a museum, is officially known as the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat The Saint Basil’s Cathedral is not to be confused with the Moscow Kremlin. This intriguing cathedral bordering Red Square consists of nine separate chapels, each capped with its own individually shaped and colored dome.
It contained eight churches arranged around a ninth, central church of Intercession; a tenth church was erected in 1588 over the grave of venerated local saint Vasily. The building is shaped like the flame of a bonfire rising into the sky, a design that has no parallel in Russian architecture.
4. Bolshoi Theatre
The oldest theater in Moscow, rebuilt following a fire and later a hurricane, is magnificent both inside and out, and its resident opera and ballet troupes rate among the finest in the world. The main building of the theatre rebuilt and renovated several times during its history, The Bolshoi re-opened after an extensive six-year renovation. The renovation included restoring acoustics to the original quality as well as restoring the original Imperial decor of the Bolshoi.
5. Lenin’s Mausoleum
Lenin’s Mausoleum is also known as Lenin’s Tomb, situated in Red Square in the center of Moscow, is a mausoleum that currently serves as the resting place of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. His preserved body has been on public display there since shortly after his death in 1924, with rare exceptions in wartime. Monumental granite structure incorporates some elements from ancient mausoleums, such as the Step Pyramid, the Tomb of Cyrus the Great.
GUM is the main department store in many cities of the former Soviet Union, known as State Department Store during the Soviet era (until 1991). Similarly-named stores operated in some Soviet republics and in post-Soviet states.
The most famous GUM is the large store facing Red Square in the Kitai-gorod area – traditionally a center of trade in Moscow. As of 2018, the building functions as a shopping mall. Prior to the 1920s, the location was known as the Upper Trading Rows.
7. The State Tretyakov Gallery
The State Tretyakov Gallery is the national treasury of Russian fine art and contains more than 180,000 works of painting, sculpture, and graphics created by generations of Russian artists. The collection contains more than 130,000 exhibits, ranging from Theotokos of Vladimir and Andrei Rublev’s Trinity to the monumental Composition VII by Wassily Kandinsky and the Black Square by Kazimir Malevich. In May 2012, the Tretyakov Art Gallery played host to the prestigious FIDE World Chess Championship between Viswanathan Anand and Boris Gelfand as the organizers felt the event would promote both chess and art at the same time.
8. Gorky Park
Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure is a central park in Moscow, named after Maxim Gorky. Gorky Park, located at Krymsky Val and situated just across the Moskva River from Park Kultury Metro station, opened in 1928. The park is widely known Soviet avant-garde and constructivist architect, and amalgamated the extensive gardens of the old Golitsyn Hospital and of the Neskuchny Palace, covering an area of 300 acres along the river.
9. Novodevichy Convent
Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery is probably the best-known cloister of Moscow. Its name, sometimes translated as the New Maidens’ Monastery, was devised to differ from the Old Maidens’ Monastery within the Moscow Kremlin. It was proclaimed a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Located near the Moscow River, this peaceful retreat from the bustling city includes a spectacular 16th-century convent and a cemetery where many of the country’s most famous writers, poets, politicians, and public figures are buried.
10. Armoury Chamber
The Kremlin Armoury is one of the oldest museums of Moscow, established in 1851 and located in the Moscow Kremlin, now a part of Moscow Kremlin Museums. The Armoury was in charge of producing, purchasing and storing weapons, jewelry and various household articles of the tsars. The finest Muscovite gunsmiths, jewelers, and painters used to work there. The Kremlin Armoury is currently home to the Russian Diamond Fund. It holds unique collections of the Russian, Western European and Eastern applied arts spanning the period from the 5th to the 20th centuries.
11. State Historical Museum
The State Historical Museum is a museum of Russian history wedged between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow. Its exhibitions range from relics of prehistoric tribes that lived on the territory of present-day Russia, through priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. The total number of objects in the museum’s collection comes to millions. The museum was founded in 1872 by Ivan Zabelin, Aleksey Uvarov and several other Slavophiles interested in promoting Russian history and national self-awareness.
12. All-Russian Exhibition Center
Vystavka Dostizheniy Narodnogo Khozyaystva (VDNKh) Exhibition of Achievements of National Economy) is a permanent general-purpose trade show and amusement park in Moscow, Russia. Between 1991 and 2014 it was also called the All-Russia Exhibition Centre. It is a state joint-stock company.
13. The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts
The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts is the largest museum of European art in Moscow, located in Volkhonka street, just opposite the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. The International musical festival Svyatoslav Richter’s December nights have been held in the Pushkin museum since 1981.
14. Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour is a Russian Orthodox cathedral in Moscow, Russia, on the northern bank of the Moskva River, a few hundred meters southwest of the Kremlin. With an overall height of 103 meters (338 ft), it is the tallest Orthodox Christian church in the world.
In 2018, it was reported that the foundations of the church were sinking and a massive campaign of underpinning and reconstruction was needed.